See the following for some fictitious stories in Romance of the Three Kingdoms involving Guan Yu: Guan Yu was deified as early as the Sui dynasty (581–618), and is still worshipped today as a bodhisattva in Buddhist tradition and as a guardian deity in Chinese folk religion and Taoism. Il a été immortalisé dans le roman des Trois Royaumes, où il est dépeint comme un guerrier loyal et honorable capable d'exploits surhumains. Cao Cao, sachant que Guan Yu va le quitter, le récompense généreusement et lui offre le titre de marquis de Hanshouting. In A.D. 200, Guan was captured by Cao Cao, a military general who would go on to control a vast amount of territory in northern China. Some alternative texts used in the annotations to Guan Yu's biography include: Shu Ji (Records of Shu), by Wang Yin; Wei Shu (Book of Wei), by Wang Chen, Xun Yi and Ruan Ji; Jiang Biao Zhuan, by Yu Pu; Fu Zi, by Fu Xuan; Dianlue, by Yu Huan; Wu Li (History of Wu), by Hu Chong; and Chronicles of Huayang, by Chang Qu. Guan Yu appears in an add-on for the game For Honor developed by Ubisoft Montreal. ». With Yan Liang's death, the siege on Boma was lifted. This is because Guan Yu, the mortal who became Guandi after death, is said by tradition to have been a peddler of bean curd early in life. Le moine demanda à l'âme de Guan Yu pourquoi celle-ci réclamerait sa tête alors que lui-même a tué et décapité des gens dans l’accomplissement de leur devoir, comme les généraux de Cao Cao que Guan Yu avait tués dans sa fuite. [Sanguozhi others 8] Gan Ning, one of Lü Meng's subordinates, managed to deter Guan Yu from crossing the shallows near Yiyang. Guan Xing then takes back the Green Dragon Crescent Blade and later passes it down the generations from father to son in the Guan family. For the 2011 film, see. Finalement il soupira et dit à Cao Cao : « Vous êtes mon seigneur et donc comme mon père, alors que Guan Yu n'est qu’un frère. Guan Yu is referenced in the 2020 game Hades by Supergiant Games. Guan Yu is also worshipped by Chinese businessmen in Shanxi, Hong Kong, Macau and Southeast Asia as an alternative wealth god, since he is perceived to bless the upright and protect them from the wicked. Liu Shan, the second emperor of Shu, gave Guan Yu the posthumous title of "Marquis Zhuangmou" (壯繆侯) four decades after his death. ». He moved to Xiaopei and left Guan Yu in charge of the provincial capital Xiapi. Pei Songzhi commented on the Dianlue account as follows: Although Liu Bei and Sun Quan appeared to get along harmoniously, they were actually distrustful of each other. Grâce à ses succès militaires, Liu Bei est nommé préfet du district de Pingyuan. Cao Cao retreated north after his defeat and left Cao Ren behind to defend Jing Province. His face had a dark red hue to it, like the colour of dark jujube fruit. Together, they fought countless battles against the warlords Cao Cao and Sun Quan, and Guan Yu grew famous for hi… Il charge tout seul l’armée adverse et le temps qu'il revienne avec la tête de Hua Xiong, le vin était encore tiède. In Chinese Buddhism, Guan Yu is revered by most practising Buddhists as Sangharama Bodhisattva (伽蓝菩萨; 伽藍菩薩; Qiélán Púsà) a heavenly protector of the Buddhist dharma. The warlord Liu Bei, and his friends, Zheng Fei, and the mighty Guan Yu swore an oath of brotherhood in a mystical peach garden, vowing to create a new, righteous world. En pratique : Quelles sources sont attendues ? The way to get rid of this problem is to cut open your arm and scrape away the poison in your bone." [Sanguozhi others 5][Sanguozhi 10], In 208, Liu Bei allied with Sun Quan and they defeated Cao Cao at the decisive Battle of Red Cliffs. Ils le suivaient en tout lieu sans s'inquiéter du danger de la situation. Il porte à l'époque le prénom usuel de Changsheng (traditionnel : 長生, simplifié : 长生). Effrayé, Sun Quan envoie la tête de Guan Yu à Cao Cao, espérant ainsi attirer les foudres du royaume de Shu sur le Wei. By the time Guan Yu retreated from Fancheng, Sun Quan's forces had occupied Jiangling and captured the families of Guan Yu's soldiers. S’il est vrai que Guan Yu avait tué Yan Liang dans la bataille, le roman en fait une scène plutôt épique : Guan Yu fonce seul sur l’armée adverse (de 50000 hommes) et renverse tous les soldats sur son passage jusqu’à ce qu’il parvienne à hauteur de Yan Liang, l’abatte, le décapite et rapporte la tête jusqu’à son camp sans encombre. Both sides then withdrew their forces. Yuan Shao envoie un de ses généraux, Yan Liang, pour attaquer Liu Yan, l’administrateur de la préfecture de Dongjun. Guan Yu is a powerful general who is considered to be a hero in each kingdom. This was an example of Cao Cao's goodness. Dans le roman, Guan Yu, apprenant où Liu Bei s’était réfugié, quitte Cao Cao et tue tour à tour cinq généraux venus s’interposer et parcourt 1 000 lieues pour retrouver son frère, tout en trainant ses deux femmes avec lui. [Sanguozhi zhu 11] In October or November 260, Liu Shan granted Guan Yu the posthumous title "Marquis Zhuangmou" (壯繆侯). Guan Xing inherited his father's title "Marquis of Hanshou Village" (漢壽亭侯) and served in the state of Shu during the Three Kingdoms period. He sighed, "Lord Cao is my superior and he is like a father to me, while Guan Yu is like a brother to me." In the ancient times of the East, a great war between Three Kingdoms raged. They were like tigers among (Liu Bei's) subjects. Guan Yu, se souvenant de la générosité de Cao Cao à son égard, décide de le laisser fuir sans combattre, soulignant encore davantage sa noblesse. The Manchu imperial clan of the Qing dynasty was also associated with Guan Yu's martial qualities. Dès son arrivée, Xu Huang annonce « Celui qui prendra la tête de Guan Yu recevra une récompense de 1 000 jins (livres) d’or ! This signifies which side Guan Yu is worshipped, by the righteous people or vice versa. When do you think he will leave?" Plus tard dans le courant de l'année, Liu Bei se retourne contre Cao Cao. In the same year, Guan Yu led his forces to attack Cao Ren at Fancheng and besiege the fortress. The descriptions of Pang De's final moments at the Battle of Fancheng were generally similar to those mentioned in his historical biography. At Xunyang (尋陽), Lü Meng ordered his troops to hide in vessels disguised as civilian and merchant ships and sail towards Jing Province. Liu Bei’s early military ventures did not go well. Among the Cantonese people who emigrated to California during the mid-19th century, the worship of Guan Yu was an important element. The apotheosis of Guan Yu occurred in stages, as he was given ever higher posthumous titles. The hunting expedition event happened in the past, so it was used to justify that Guan Yu had given Liu Bei "valued advice", which the latter ignored. Guan Yu aurait dit à Zhang Liao : « Je suis parfaitement conscient que le Seigneur Cao m’a montré beaucoup de respect et de générosité, mais le Seigneur Liu m'a également bien traité et j'ai juré de mourir pour lui. Guan Yu killed Che Zhou after an argument, and Liu Bei was once again forced to rebel against Cao Cao. Un autre passage célèbre du roman, pourtant purement fictif, est la scène où Cao Cao, qui vient de subir la plus grande défaite militaire de sa carrière à la bataille de la Falaise rouge bat en retraite et se fait arrêter en chemin par Guan Yu. » C’est souvent fidèle à cette description que sont faites les représentations de Guan Yu. The flood destroyed Yu Jin's seven armies. La même année, Guan Yu dirige une expédition contre Cao Ren à Fan. During the last decade of the 16th century, Guan Yu was also credited with the repulse of Japanese invasion of Korea by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. It was in autumn and there were heavy showers so the Han River overflowed. [Sanguozhi 7] The Fu Zi gave a slightly different account of this incident. Zhang Fei et Guan Yu se tiennent néanmoins toujours prêt à servir Liu Bei lors des longues réunions en se tenant debout à ses côtés du lever au coucher du soleil. C'est alors que son âme rencontra un moine sur qui il hurla : « Rendez-moi ma tête ! Selon le Livre des Wei, il lui offre également la direction de la province de Xu. Cao Cao sent 5,000 elite cavalry to pursue Liu Bei's group and they caught up with them at Changban, where the Battle of Changban broke out. As a God, he is a guardian of justice, a hero to the downtrodden, the Saint of War. [Sanguozhi 4][Sanguozhi others 2][Sanguozhi zhu 2], In 200, Cao Cao led his forces to attack Liu Bei, defeated him and retook Xu Province. Ainsi, juste après sa décapitation, son âme alla errer au mont Yuquan, un peu en dehors de l'ancienne province de Dangyang. Guan Yu is a real prominent historical figure during the period of the 3 kingdoms. Guan Yu knew that he had been isolated so he withdrew to Maicheng (麥城; in present-day Dangyang, Hubei) and headed west to Zhang District (漳鄉), where his remaining men deserted him and surrendered to the enemy. He scolded the messenger, "You raccoon dogs dare to behave like this! He is fierce and mighty, and a hero of his time. In the 14th century, his spirit was said to have aided Zhu Yuanzhang, the founder of the Ming dynasty, at the Battle of Lake Poyang. Dorsey Darryle. When Guan Yu pursued him, he suddenly turned around and fired an arrow, which hit Guan in the left arm. Laissez-le partir. According to an earlier arrangement, Liu Bei "borrowed" southern Jing Province from Sun Quan to serve as a temporary base; he would have to return the territories to Sun Quan once he found another base. Although Sun Quan felt insulted by Guan Yu's response, he still wrote a letter to Guan Yu and pretended to apologise and offer to allow Guan Yu to pass through his territory freely. Réputé de son vivant guerrier invincible, il a été capturé et exécuté, avec son fils Guan Ping par les troupes de Sun Quan, par Lu Meng lors du siège de Fan. After Liu Bei seized control of Yi Province, Sun Quan asked him to return three commanderies but Liu Bei refused. Guan Xing's son, Guan Tong (關統), married a princess (one of Liu Shan's daughters) and served as a General of the Household (中郎將) among the imperial guards. He is known for fighting around the world of martial artists alongside his best friend, Zhang Fei, whom he has attended twenty-four schools with (only because they always got kicked out for starting fights). Guan Yu est un des premiers personnages qui apparaissent dans le roman car celui-ci commence au moment de sa rencontre avec Liu Bei et Zhang Fei, et leur serment de fraternité. Il servit sous les ordres de Liu Bei, le fondateur du royaume de Shu, dont il est le frère d'arme avec Zhang Fei, et aurait été un des cinq « généraux tigres », avec Huang Zhong, Ma Chao, Zhang Fei et Zhao Yun, bien qu’on ignore s’il a effectivement porté ce titre. Zhang Liao répondit: « Guan Yu a reçu votre traitement de faveur. [Sanguozhi others 11] Guan Yu withdrew his forces after seeing that he could not capture Fancheng. Alternatively, the idea of his red face could have been borrowed from opera representation, where red faces represented loyalty and righteousness. Every year, on the 24th day of the sixth month on the lunar calendar (Guan Yu's birthday in legend), a street parade in Guan Yu's honour would also be held. Zhang Liao replied, "Guan Yu has received favours from Your Excellency. Guan Tong had no son when he died, so he was succeeded by his younger half-brother Guan Yi (關彝). Even if Liu Bei succeeded in killing Cao Cao, he would not have been able to escape alive, so Liu Bei did not heed Guan Yu's words. The Eternal Spear is said to be the same spear wielded by Guan Yu in the future, taking this form. The appearance of Guan Yu's face for the triads is usually more stern and threatening than the usual statue. [j] Most of Guan Yu's soldiers lost their fighting spirit and deserted and went back to Jing Province to reunite with their families. He is comparable to Qing Bu and Peng Yue. C’est donc le fils bâtard de Guan Xing, Guan Yi, qui hérite du titre. Le roman attribue à Guan Yu la victoire contre Hua Xiong (en réalité capturé et exécuté par Sun Jian) : Cao Cao propose une coupe de vin chaud (les chinois le boivent chauffé au bain-marie à température du corps humain) à Guan Yu mais celui-ci le refuse sur le moment. He was widely popularized by the Chinese historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms. They often chatted about other things apart from military affairs. Sun Quan then sent his general Lü Meng to lead his forces to seize the three commanderies. Cao Cao envoie alors Xu Huang pour assister Cao Ren. [Sanguozhi zhu 15], In 214, Ma Chao defected from Zhang Lu's side to Liu Bei's forces, and he assisted Liu Bei in pressuring Liu Zhang to surrender and yield Yi Province to Liu Bei. Pang De wanted to use the opportunity to attack but Yu Jin (who was his superior) stopped him. Liu Bei left Zhuge Liang, Guan Yu, Zhang Fei and others in charge of Jing Province while he led an army into Yi Province. Pei Songzhi disputed this account as follows: According to (Wei Zhao's) Book of Wu, when Sun Quan sent Pan Zhang to block Guan Yu's retreat route, Guan Yu was executed after he was captured. If he did not want to kill Cao Cao for the sake of the Empire, what did he mean when he said this? As a man, Guan Yu was the embodiment of loyalty, honor, and strength. [Sanguozhi 3], Liu Bei and his men followed Cao Cao back to the imperial capital Xu after their victory over Lü Bu at the Battle of Xiapi in 198. Convinced to surrender, Guan Yu agreed on three conditions. Zhang Liao hésita à rapporter ces paroles à Cao Cao car elles auraient pu signifier une condamnation à mort pour Guan Yu. Mais peu avant la bataille finale, Guan Yu réitère sa demande à plusieurs reprises si bien que Cao Cao commence à se demander si la dame ne devait pas être de grande beauté. Most of Guan Yu's soldiers lost their fighting spirit and deserted and went back to Jing Province to reunite with their families. In Hong Kong, a shrine to Guan Yu can be found in every police station. In her introduction, Guan Yu wears a typical white chinese monk tunic. [citation needed] In illustrations of Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Guan Yu is traditionally depicted wearing a green robe over his body armour. : Guan) et un autre idéogramme (p. ex. [Sanguozhi others 12], When Guan Yu embarked on the Fancheng campaign, he left Mi Fang and Shi Ren behind to defend his key bases in Jing Province – Nan Commandery and Gong'an . [Sanguozhi 13], The Shu Ji recorded that before Guan Yu embarked on the Fancheng campaign, he dreamt about a boar biting his foot. Guan Yu’s life was lionized and his achievements glorified to such an extent after his death that he was deified during the Sui dynasty. Ses actions ont donc bien souvent été amplifiées et son personnage avait déjà atteint une dimension mythique que le roman a repris. Wen Ping attacked Guan Yu's equipage and supplies at Han Ford (漢津) and burnt his boats at Jingcheng (荊城). Il demande donc à Zhang Liao d’aller parler avec Guan Yu pour sonder ses sentiments. Browse more videos. Ichijou describes Guan Yu as a young woman about his age and height with piercing red eyes, fair skin, short messy black hair(which he labels as sex hair) and big breasts. Guan Yu followed Liu Bei to Xinye. Through generations of story telling, culminating in the 14th-century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms, his deeds and moral qualities have been given immense emphasis, making Guan Yu one of East Asia's most popular paradigms of loyalty and righteousness. the Temple of the Deity of War), or Temple of Kwan Tai, built in 1852, is a typical example of the small shrines erected to Guan Yu in the United States. Guan Yu repaid Cao Cao's kindness while Zhang Fei released Yan Yan out of righteousness. ». In the midst of battle, Guan Yu recognised Yan Liang's parasol so he charged towards Yan Liang, decapitated him and returned with his head. The Mendocino Joss House, a historical landmark also known as Mo Dai Miu (Wudimiao, i.e. [11] He is also held in high esteem in Confucianism. Celui-ci était fort estimé de Zhuge Liang et il fut nommé intendant au palais et reçut la charge de zhong jian jun (中监军) « superviseur de l’armée ». En la 5e année de Jian’an (200), Cao Cao part en campagne à l’est et Liu Bei se réfugie auprès de Yuan Shao. Sun Quan once proposed a marriage between his son and Guan Yu's daughter, but Guan Yu rejected the proposal. They suggested to Cao Cao to ally with Sun Quan and get him to help them hinder Guan Yu's advances; in return, Cao Cao would recognise the legitimacy of Sun Quan's claim over the territories in Jiangdong. 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